The Incan Civilization: A Well-established And Flourishing Society

The Incan Civilization: A Well-established And Flourishing Society.

The Incan Civilization: A Well-established And Flourishing Society

The Incas created the largest American Empire. Towards the end of the 14th century, the empire began to expand from its original territory to the Cuzco region, located in South America. However, it stopped abruptly with the Spanish invasion led by Francisco Pizarro in 1532.

The Inca Empire.

The Incas named their territory Tawantinsuyu, which in Quechua, the Inca language means "The Four Parts". A territory, with a variety of soils and climates, occupying a large desert area, dotted with rich tree lines, high peaks, and deep fertile valleys of the Andes and the peaks of the mountains of the tropical forest of the East.

The term Inca refers to the leader, the leader as well as the people of the Cuzco Valley, the capital of the empire. This of course sometimes serves to show all people including Tawantinsuyu, but it is not true.

The Quechua language.

The majority of the twelve small kingdoms retained their identity even though they were politically and economically connected to the Incas.

Quechua was the official language and was used by most communities until the arrival of the Spanish, but there were at least twenty local dialects in most parts of the empire.

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The brilliance of Culture.

When the Spaniards arrived in Peru in 1532, the Incas had established their dominion over the upper country and the lowlands of the Andes. Their empire stretched from Cusco to Colombia to the north and to Chile and Argentina to the south.

The splendor of their culture reached Panama and reached the distant shores of the Atlantic in Brazil, in the form of bronze tools or gold and silver jewelry, carried from tribe to tribe in the Amazon rainforest.

Of all South America, which still lived in the Stone Age, only the Land of Fire escaped the charm of the Inca majesty, which was to give birth to the legend of "El Dorado" when the Europeans suffered this charm in turn.

The last Emperor of the Incas Atawalpa, a prisoner of the Spaniards.

The Incan Civilization: A Well-established And Flourishing Society

The origin of the Incas.

However, the origins of the Incas were obscure, and they initially encountered difficulties in an area where they lived for a long time as intruders. Their expansion did not begin until the middle of the 15th century, during the reign of Pachacuti, the ninth monarch of Cuzco.

As late as this expansion was, it quickly secured them the legacy of a cultural tradition for which many peoples had contributed over several millennia to be forged and enriched.

The architecture.

The Incas developed a highly functional style of public architecture that is distinguished mainly by the advanced techniques of economic and technical study and stone building. The plan of their cities was based on a system of central avenues that intersected with other smaller streets that ended in an open square surrounded by municipal buildings and temples.

The buildings had a single floor of impeccable stones, they also used bricks and straw in the areas near the shore.

For the construction of monuments such as the Sacchuaman castle near Cuzco, compact volumes of solid polygons were harmonized with amazing precision. In mountainous areas, such as the spectacular fortress at Machu Picchu, Inca architecture reflects the clever adaptations of the natural terrain.


The religion of the state was based on the worship of the Sun. The Inca emperors were considered the descendants of the Sun God and were worshiped as deities. Gold, the symbol of the Sun, was extremely useful to be used by the leaders and members of the cream, not so much in return but mainly for ceremonial and decorative purposes. Religion dominated the entire political structure.

After the Temple of the Sun in the center of Cuzco, we could draw fantastic lines to the places of worship of the various social classes of the city.

Religious practices involved oracles, sacrificial offerings, religious fears, and public confessions. An annual cycle of religious festivals was on the Inca calendar, extremely accurate as the agricultural year.

The pre-Incas period.

The first inhabitants of Peru were nomadic hunters who lived in caves on the Peruvian coast. The oldest site, the cave dates back to 12000 BC. Cotton, corn, beans, and peppers were cultivated after 4000 BC.

Later, more progressive cultures such as the Chavin developed fisheries, agriculture, and religion in the country. Around 300 BC. they disappeared inexplicably but then over the centuries many other cultures, the Nazca became very important.

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